Who hears as I do and to whom do I belong?
About the notion of cultural identity in the context of an (intercultural) music education
This paper discusses the question, how the «Intercultural Music Education» can contribute to develop what the author calls a «stable, balanced cultural identity». The term identity, by reference of a (post-)modern approach, is seen as a relational construct and contains moments of reflections and the location in a social context. Culture is understood in the sense of shared interpretations of meaning according to a meaning-based concept of culture (Reckwitz 2000). This understanding neither forces migrant children to orientate themselves on traditional music of their country of origin, nor demands from children and youths of the majority society to seek for their music cultural roots in the works of the «Occidental Art Music». The paper ends with the authors considerations how these concepts should be taken account in music classes to introduce students to an open identity creation with multiple music cultural senses of belonging and to a respectful interaction with other identities.
Olivier Blanchard and Jürg Huber
Between canon an socio-culture
Explorations on the field of school music in the German speaking part of Switzerland
This paper presents an explorative study about music classes in «Sekundarschulen» and «Gymnasien» in the German speaking part of Switzerland. The intention of this work was to gain insight into the thinking of music teachers about their teaching and to develop research questions for future projects. Therefore the authors interviewed music teachers online with their respective curricula as the basis of the survey. It emerged that teachers of the «Sekundarschule» have a high sensitivity of the claims, abilities and interests of their students and orient their teaching towards these frame conditions. On the «Gymnasien», music classes agree more strongly with the curricular goals. However, different types of music teachers can be described which represent different didactical and methodological concepts.
«Music has a meaning to me»
Meaning construction in music classes as a dimension of music related education
This paper discusses the educational potential of music classes in which music-related meaning is constructed. The term «meaning» is based on a constructivist approach. The «moderate constructivism» according to Siegfried J. Schmidt (1994) takes account of the social context, in which each individual is integrated. In this context, a justification of an assignment of meaning needs to be intersubjectively traceable. Music classes in schools become, according to the author, a predestined place to construct meaning, as individuals with different, already constructed meanings of music meet, which may cause a perturbation of the meanings of others. In this way, existing constructs can be broadened or changed and educational processes can be initiated.
Individual concepts of music teachers
An empirical study as a contribution to basic research in music education
This paper gives an insight into an empirical study about individual concepts of music teachers. Interviews about the preparation of music lessons were put in relation with the biographical backgrounds of the interviewees. It is revealed that on the one part individual concepts can only be understood in the context of the respective biography and on the other part individual concepts take an important function in the construction of each biography. On the basis of the results of the study, the author expresses the request that in the training of future music teachers, biographical influences should have a greater significance and working conditions should be given attention to earlier. Furthermore she pleads that the problems teachers encounter at their work should be reinterpreted as learning discrepancies.
Aesthetic arguments as a medium of music classes
About the significance of the argument-based speech about music for aesthetic education
This paper discusses the educational potential of aesthetic arguments in music classes. The description of the characteristics of an aesthetic argument is linked with reflections on (appropriate) ways of speaking about music. The discussion of the fundamental question how music can contribute to education, which is seen in this context as a transformation process, provides the basics to obtain the preconditions under which aesthetic arguments in music classes can be seen as educational. In conclusion it is discussed how aesthetic arguments in music classes can be initiated.
Music education as critical cultural sciences – revisited
This paper contains meta-theoretical considerations about the status of the research in music education. The author states, that music education – at least in Germany – concentrates on «Empirical Education Research» and works with the repertoire of methods oft the empirical social sciences. This is contrasted by reflections on the possibility to see music education as cultural sciences. These are explained on the basis of «performance» as an «umbrella term» of the cultural sciences. It is shown that an university of art, which unifies performance experts of all kinds, can be a predestined place for interdisciplinary research on music classes as a special kind of performativity.