Sounding Soil: Premiere at Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern

Sounding Soil
An acoustic-artistic observatory
Marcus Maeder, 2018

Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern/Switzerland

20.10. – 25.11.2018

Opening: 20.10.2018, 14:00, Agrikulturtag ZPK

The Sounding Soil installation consists of a white 10“ freight container with a small garden on its roof, a touch screen console with a sound map and a spatial audio system in its dark painted interior. In the sound map, over 20 recordings from soils in Switzerland are selectable and played back in surround audio. The soil of the garden on the container‘s roof controls a generative music part which is played when no soil recording is selected.

Soils and their perception

Soils present themselves to us mostly as differently composed surfaces, with that which is underneath escaping our perception. Soil ecosystems are complex and their biotic interactions closely interwoven. Soils are highly sensitive to any disturbances, be they human farming systems or forest management. Healthy soils are of key importance, because they provide indispensable ecosystem services; soil systems filter and regulate water, provide nutrient cycles, deplete toxic substances etc. Sustainably managed soils enhance the resilience of agricultural systems and are better able to adapt to changing climatic conditions while also contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by carbon sequestration.

In contrast, soil degradation has increased over recent decades – not only in its spectacular form in the tropics, with immense land loss through deforestation and erosion, but directly at our front door, on the fields where our food is being produced, through pollution with mineral fertilizers, pesticides and antibiotics, and through soil compaction with increasingly heavy machinery.

There seems to be a basic perception problem behind these environmental issues; the pedosphere and its functions or state of health cannot easily or instantly be translated into a sensual experience. It is a black box that needs to be opened up and interpreted by experts, and their findings must then be mediated to “non-experts.” For the most part, the ground at our feet is not an object of our observation or contemplation; it is just there and is being treated like some dead mass, because it eludes
our direct perception. Increasing awareness of soil ecosystems is therefore an important issue.

In Ecoacoustics, soundscape ecology or acoustic ecology, audio recordings are used to analyze ecological relationships. Almost every organism produces sound waves as its life manifestation. Be it movement activity or communication, we can potentially hear which organism does what under which circumstances on the one hand, and we may contextualize the organism’s activity with the sounds of the environment on the other.

What can you hear in the soil?

A healthy soil is home to a wide range of fauna and flora. It ensures the basic soil functions such as the decomposition of vegetable litter and nutrient cycling. The more diverse the creatures living in the soil are, then the higher is the functional redundancy of the ecosystem, i.e., if individual species are missing, their function can be taken up by other species in the soil.

Soil fauna come in different sizes – ranging from bacteria and nematodes (roundworms), known as microfauna, to macro- and megafauna, such as beetles, earthworms and moles, thereby spanning a complex network of interactions and nutritional dependencies. With our acoustic equipment, we can primarily hear the meso- and macro- soil fauna, i.e. all the animals larger than half a millimetre. Meso- and macrofauna perform important functions in the soil – these organisms shred plant residues, prey on other soil fauna and loosen the soil by burrowing. A large diversity in meso- and macrofauna reflects a healthy ecosystem.

The installation‘s sound map contains the recordings of soil fauna such as springtails, mites, centipedes, beetles, isopods, fly larvae, earthworms, spiders, orthoptera (grasshoppers) and cicadas. We took soil samples from all the recording locations 
of the research project (large dots) and identified and counted the animal species. The majority of soil fauna make noises when moving through the soil or eating. A few also make use of the soil to communicate with each other. Some of the animals live in the litter layer – the decomposing plant material lying on the surface of the soil. In addition, animals can also be heard who live on the soil, using it as a communication medium by generating vibrations that can be picked up by their conspecifics via the legs or body.

Soil fauna produce different noises – according to the size and structure of their body as well as their behaviour: the greater the variety of animal sounds you can hear in a recording, the more diverse is the soil fauna. This can also be acoustically measured and statistically evaluated. In the Sounding Soil research project, we have attempted to acoustically measure soil biodiversity based on what are known as acoustic indices. We have already been able to identify distinct differences at the various locations of the sound map. For example, conventionally managed arable land is quieter and exhibits fewer different
noises than an organically managed meadow. Forest soil is also rather quieter, since this type of soil is generally cooler and the soil fauna there are less active than in a sun-kissed meadow.

Often it is not only the noises of soil fauna that can be heard but also physical sources, such as rain as it hits the ground and seeps away, or wind moving the vegetation on the soil surface that is audible as a rumbling in the soil. Furthermore, other environmental noise can also be heard in the soil. Thus the vibrations from building sites and the proximity of roads adversely affect acoustic recordings and measurements in the soil – this is particularly the case with aircraft noise, the deep roaring sound of which can drown out the noises made by soil organisms. The effects of acoustic environmental pollution on the distribution, activity and composition of soil fauna remain totally unexplored. Nevertheless, however, it must be assumed that environmental noise produced by humans not only has a negative impact on aboveground and maritime fauna but also on the animal communities living in the soil.

A further element of the Sounding Soil sound installation is the music that starts to play when no soil sounds are selected in the sound map to listen to. It consists of sound patterns that are distributed at three levels of the loudspeaker system in the
container. The individual sound patterns are controlled both by sensors in the soil and the weather station on the roof of the container. Readings such as the intensity of the sunlight, the amount of rain, the surface and soil temperature as well as the soil moisture control the music while making it possible for the microclimatic factors and their interactions, which influence the activity of the soil fauna, to be heard and experienced. In this way, depending on the time of day, weather and season, a generative composition is created, which only changes extremely slowly – in analogy to the soil matrix, which acts as a buffer by reacting very slowly to environmental changes.

The research project Sounding Soil

Sounding Soil is an inter- and transdisciplinary research and art project that investigates the acoustics of soil ecosystems. In this study, methods to record and measure the acoustic activity and composition of soil organisms are being developed with the objective of assessing biodiversity in soils rapidly and affordably by acoustic means. Recordings of the soil fauna are part of a participatory art installation and a citizen science project. The project aims to create a first-hand experience of soil ecosystems and increase soil awareness in broader parts of society, be they the urban population, agricultural producers or political decision makers.

Sounding Soil is carried out as a cooperation between the Zurich University of the Arts (ZHdK)/the Institute for Computer Music and Sound Technology, the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO), the Institute for Terrestrial Ecosystems as well as the USYS TdLab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH)
in Zurich and Biovision Foundation for Ecological Development.

Visit the project’s homepage

Check out the sound map

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AmazonFace Exhibition in Manaus

Espirito da Floresta/Forest Spirit

Installation by Marcus Maeder, 2017/2018

Exhibition Amazônia e mudanças climaticas at Bosque da Sciencia, Paiol da Cultura, Manaus/Brasil

12.9. – 11.11.2018

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treelab at Eco-Visionaries Exhibition, HEK Basel

Art, New Media and Ecology After the Anthropocene

The exhibition Eco-Visionaries is dedicated to the topic of ecological change and presents artistic responses to current challenges. It investigates new media, technologies and techno-scientific methods in the arts and their significance for the perception and awareness of the “ecological.”

Haus der Elektronischen Künste, Basel, 30.08. – 11.11.2018


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treelab @ STARTS Prize Exhibitions

treelab at BOZAR, Brussels

Ars Electronica Festival 2017, Linz 07. – 11.09. 2017
BOZAR Electronic Arts Festival, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Bruxelles 14.09. – 30.09.2017

More informations here.

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AmazonFACE: Espírito da floresta/Forest spirit

Installation at the Inter-American Development Bank, Washington DC,
AmazonFACE symposium – Impacts of Climate Change on the Amazon Forest

Espirito da floresta/Forest spirit

AmazonFACE is a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment assessing the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest. The experiment will simulate the atmospheric CO2 composition of the future in order to help answer the question: How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides.

Carbon Dioxide was discovered by the flemish chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont in the 17th century. He called the gas that evaporated from burning wood „Spiritus sylvestre“, „forest spirit.“ In the installation “Espirito da floresta/Forest spirit”, a local ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest is represented acoustically. The acoustic emissions of a tree (Ocotea Sp.) and the environmental sounds in the field station of the AmazonFACE research project were recorded in 10-minute intervals over three days. The sounds of the tree and its inhabitants were recorded using specially developed contact microphones at three positions – in the crown, on the trunk, and at the roots. These sounds can be heard through the sound panels of the installation (in the module to the right of the projection surface), together with the environmental noises (through the video projection surface itself) and the sonification of the CO2 concentration at three heights in the forest (through the module behind the projection surface). In the sonification, the CO2 data flow is used to control the generation of sound in the installation’s computer. A flute-like synthetic sound is used in for data sonification: this is reproduced for each of the three measurement heights, and the current measured values control the pitch of the three flute-like sounds. By these means the dynamics of the CO2 concentration at three different “storeys” in the rainforest are rendered audible.

In the installation changes to the soundscape of the rainforest at an increased atmospheric CO2 concentration in the atmosphere are rendered observable. Beyond that, new acoustic research methods of biodiversity will be tested. The so-called Acoustic Complexity Index ACI is displayed in the video projection. In this acoustic estimate of biodiversity, the amplitude envelope is being analysed in a number of frequency bands: the greater the number of different volumes measured over a certain amount of time in specified frequency bands of the audio recordings, the higher the acoustically quantifiable biodiversity – what interests us here is the dynamic of this value over short and long time periods. Will biodevirsity decrease under an elevated CO2 concentration?

The installation “Espirito da floresta/Forest spirit” aims to make the processes in a local ecosystem audible and acoustically examinable: the noises in a tree and its immediate environment change, depending on the time of day and the weather, the CO2 values increase or decrease on the different “storeys” in the forest, and it becomes possible to experience sensually the close connection between environmental conditions and life
processes in the rainforest.


Concept and artistic design: Marcus Maeder, Zürcher Hochschule der Künste ZHdK, 2017
Preparation of environmental data: Alessandro Araujo, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa)
Implementation ACI: Martin Neukom, ZHdK
Programming support : Thomas Peter, Philippe Kocher, ZHdK
Production support sound panels: Thomas Tobler, ZHdK

This pre-study is financed by the ZHdK foundation and AmazonFACE.

Screenshot of the video projection.

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STARTS Prize 2017: Honorary Mention for ‘trees’


STARTS is a prize of the European Commission honoring Innovation in Technology, Industry and Society stimulated by the Arts. The prize is awarded at the Ars Electronica Festival in Linz (A).

“Science, technology and arts (STARTS for short) limn a nexus at which insightful observers have identified extraordinarily high potential for innovation. And innovation is precisely what’s called for if we’re to master the social, ecological and economic challenges that Europe will be facing in the near future. In this STARTS Prize initiative, the European Commission’s focus is on projects and people that can make meaningful contributions to this effort.

Here, art is assigned the role of catalyst that propagates scientific and technological knowledge and skills among the general public and triggers innovative processes. Accordingly, STARTS is emphasizing, on one hand, artistic works that influence or change the way we look at technology, and, on the other hand, very promising forms of collaboration between the private sector and the world of art and culture. A prizewinning project will be singled out for recognition in both categories.”(quoted from the STARTS site)

We’re very proud!

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Out now: Kunst, Wissenschaft, Natur (Art, Science and Nature)

The book is in German.

Marcus Maeder (Hg.)
Kunst, Wissenschaft, Natur
Zur Ästhetik und Epistemologie der künstlerisch-wissenschaftlichen Naturbeobachtung

Künste und Wissenschaften sind sich näher gekommen – besonders in ihrer Verwendung von Medientechnologien und im Einsatz von ästhetischen Praktiken. Doch wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse sehen sich nicht nur in ihrer Vermittlung mit ästhetischen Fragen konfrontiert, sondern bereits in der Erforschung eines Gegenstands. Die Künste ihrerseits haben sich in jüngeren Disziplinen wie der Bio- oder Eco-Art auf die Naturwissenschaften zu bewegt. Die Beiträger_innen des Bandes untersuchen die erkenntnistheoretischen und ästhetischen Bedingungen, Möglichkeiten und Probleme, die sich zeigen, wenn Kunst und Wissenschaft in Kooperation treten und neue Wahrnehmungsformen der Natur schaffen.

Mit Beiträgen von Marcus Maeder, Jeanine Reutemann, Hannes Rickli, Andreas Rigling und Yvonne Volkart.

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New collaboration with AmazonFACE

Assessing the effects of increased CO2 on the resilience oft he Amazon Forest

AmazonFACE is a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment assessing the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest. The experiment will simulate the atmospheric CO2 composition of the future in order to help answer the question: How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides?

AmazonFACE extended by Acoustic Ecology and Artistic Research

In this collaborative preliminary study of AmazonFACE and the Zurich University of the Arts ZHdK, we examine the possibilities of acoustic and artistic methods to contribute to the research on the effects of increased CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon Forest. We will adapt the acoustic recording technology developed by the ICST to an AmazonFACE measurement plot, record the acoustic events in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and combine these recordings with data sonifications (a transformation of data streams into sound and music) of ecological measurement data from the site, seeking for correlations between the recorded sounds and the measured effects of an increased CO2 input into a local ecosystem. The main goal here is to render effects of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere on a local ecosystem artistically perceptible and examinable and to communicate in a new way scientific findings as broad as possible.

A first prototype of the sound installation playing the recordings from the Amazon forest will be presented on 7/8 June 2017 at the Inter-American Development Bank Headquarters as well as at the Brazilian Embassy in Washington.

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Preview: Acoustic Ecology Excursion 2017


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Sounding soils – sounding insects

New recording lab at WSL.

New recording lab at WSL.

Sounding insects: Cricket parade at the WSL lab

Sounding insects: Cricket parade at the WSL lab

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